(EPUB) [The Epigenetics Revolution]

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The Epigenetics Revolution

Download  The Epigenetics Revolution å PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB free At the beginning of this century enormous progress had been made in genetics The Human Genome Project finished seuencing human DNA It seemed it was only a matter of time until we had all the answers to the secrets of life on this planet The cutting edge of biology however is telling us that we still don't even know all of the uestions How is it that despite each cell in your body carrying exactly the same DNA you don't have teeth growing out of you. Since the Watson Crick model of our double helical structure DNA in 1953 and the foundations of the central dogma of molecular biology DNA RNA protein were established major advances in genetics have taken place In the year 2003 the Human Genome Project finished an accurate and complete seuence of the human genome which became available to scientists and researchers and for you if you wish to download at the NHGRI page Knowledge of the complete seuence allows the identification of all human genes the variation of such genes among different populations and provides a fundamental understanding of how our genome contribute to health and disease Now with the use of genetic engineering it is possible to produce insulin EPO or monoclonal antibodies among other uses through gene modification But with this genetic revolution taking place have we finally deciphered who we are Are we just the molecular result of the laws of heredity The mysteries of heredity have always fascinated scientists Identical twins share the same genotype the same womb and they are usually brought up in a very similar environment So if they share the same genetic code how is it possible that they can become so different as they grow Why are there differences in susceptibilities to mental diseases such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder Although monozygotic twins share a common genotype most MZ twin pairs are not identical theres is a phenotypical discordance Modern twin studies are focusing now on showing the effect of a person s shared environment family vs a uniue environment the individual events that shape a life on a trait According to the research by Esteller and Craig it has been concluded that even genetically identical twins are epigenetically distinct at time of birth and these epigenetics differences become pronounced with age and exposure to different environments So how does environment plays a role in this differences Why are some foods good for our health and why do others cause us disease What is the impact of stress in our health What role does environment play in cancer Why is it that the older we get we are susceptible we are to develop certain diseases Why do we age Why and how does one of our X chromosomes in females obviously becomes deactivated What role does stress play in child development So many debatable and interesting uestions to solveWelcome to the fascinating world of EPIGENETICS The debate where Nature vs Nurture takes place and become oneEpigenetics is an emerging frontier of science that involves the study of changes in the regulation of gene activity and expression that are not dependent on gene seuence and it is in The Epigenetics Revolution by Nessa Carey where you will be introduced to a fantastic world of science in which you will learn if and how environment play a fundamental role in your genotypephenotype Epigenetic mechanisms play a key role in regulating gene expression by turning off and on genes such as stable transcription complexes modification of histones in chromatin lysine acetylation and methylation of DNA These are basic concepts you will read throughout the book in order to understand this fascinating field of study One hallmark of these modifications and probably the better understood so far is DNA methylation which affects your genome Methylation simply means the addition of a methyl group at cytosine which is the only of the four DNA bases that gets methylated and specifically at the C s that preced G s in the DNA chain and form what we refer to as CpG dinucleotides or islands when there are high concentrations Once DNA is methylated it bind to a protein called MeCP2 then these methyl groups turn genes off by affecting interactions between DNA and the cell s protein making machinery such as gene promoters transposons and imprinting control regions In the following picture you can see how MeCP2 binds to a gene promoter attracting other proteins to help switch the gene off One of these important regulatory roles of DNA methylation is genomic imprinting Imprinting is a normal process caused by alterations in chromatin that occur in the germline of one parent but not the other at characteristic locations in the genome A process that takes place during gametogenesis and persists postnatally into adulthood through hundreds of cells divisions so that only one maternal or paternal copy of the gene is expressed Once again imprinting affects the expression of a gene but not its primary DNA seuence You will also have a voyage in the world of imprinting disorders such as Prader Willi Angelman Syndrome Silver Russell syndrome and Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome among other essential ones If you are a doctor you will enjoy it as a good refresher The second kind of epigenetic mark called histone modification indirectly affects the DNA in your genome Histones are spool like proteins that enable DNA s very long molecules to be wound up neatly into chromosomes inside the cell nucleus A variety of chemical tags can grab hold of the tails of histones changing how tightly or loosely they package DNA If the wrapping is tight a gene may be hidden from the cell s protein making machinery and conseuently be switched off In contrast if the wrapping is loosened a gene that was formerly hidden may be turned on The following image is a representation of a core nucleosome with its respective histones and around 200 base pairs Why is epigenetics important to you Why does it matters According to the NHGRI Lifestyle and environmental factors can expose a person to chemical tags that change the epigenome In other words your epigenome may change based on what you eat and drink whether you smoke what medicines you take what pollutants you encounter and even how uickly your body ages There is also some evidence from animal and human studies that indicates that what a female eats and drinks during pregnancy may change the epigenome of her offspringMost epigenomic changes are probably harmless but some changes may trigger or increase the severity of disease Researchers already have linked changes in the epigenome to various cancers diabetes autoimmune diseases and mental illnessesAs you can see Epigenetics is an area of increasing importance in human and medical genetics with significant influences on gene expression and phenotype both in normal individuals and in a variety of disorders The author does a wonderful work in explaining the basic concepts of this field in science including molecular mechanisms involved essential genes and syndromes seen in medical genetics as well as a wonderful tribute to the work of various scientists from Gregor Mendel s laws of inheritance to Shinya Yamanaka s stem cell research involved in what we understand today regarding genetics If you are familiar with the terms and this field of study perhaps you will find the same information as other books or publications as you will go over the typical examples like the agouti mouse experiments the classic Dutch famine and its correlation with obessity the epigenetics of the royal jelly etc but I think is still enjoyable to re read if you love the topic For this reason I give a 4star much of the information I was already familiar with Besides she did not mention the work of the Nobel laureates Barbara McClintock or Paul Berg which I consider essential here It is a book good enough for anyone with the desire to learn and perhaps and opportunity to impress your science literate friends next time they speak of epigenetics Jump in and learn about this amazing fieldFor information please visit National Human Genome Research Institute OMIM Online Mendelian Inheritance of Men Which is an Online Catalog of Human Genes and Genetic Disorders

Read ð PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB free ´ Nessa Carey

Download  The Epigenetics Revolution å PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB free R eyeballs or toenails on your liver How is it that identical twins share exactly the same DNA and yet can exhibit dramatic differences in the way that they live and grow It turns out that cells read the genetic code in DNA like a script to be interpreted than a mould that replicates the same result each time This is epigenetics and it's the fastest moving field in biology today The Epigenetics Revolution traces the thrilling path this discipline h. Carey explains how epigenetics makes two people different who have exactly the same genes Take her example of the identical twin with schizophrenia One might think if one identical twin has schizophrenia the other one will Not necessarily only a 50% chance But if not due to genes why is the chance so high given only 1% or fewer occurrences in the population as a whole The difference is due to epigeneticsEpigenetics operates through mechanisms that alter the expression of a gene without changing its structure Methylation can shut down a gene entirely Acetylation of the histone that packages DNA can ramp up gene expression As Carey drills down the processes become increasingly complex and unclear since much is still not understood There are hundreds of proteins that write read or erase epigenetic codes each with their own specialization For example genes may code for proteins that promote or inhibit say depression or anxiety Then there are enzymes and RNAs that directly up or down regulate those genes Then these enzymes and RNAs are in turn up or down regulated by other enzymes and RNAs All of these molecules are manufactured in processes subject to similar scenarios The process is so intertwined that it boggles the mind The discussion made me wonder how anything so intricate could ever work but indeed it does most of the timeMuch of this activity is controlled by our so called junk DNA which does not code for proteins For example the retrotransposons are DNA segments that code for RNA that can methylate genes Methylation is critical to our development By turning off some genes it ensures each cell performs only its specialized function We don t want our heart cells making liver enzymes or brain cells beating like our heart Other parts of our junk DNA code for microRNA that regulate messenger RNA Messenger RNA carries the DNA instructions to the ribosome where proteins are assembled Humans have extensive microRNA editing capabilities that even our closest relatives the chimpanzees lack This ability to fine tune microRNA is particularly evidenced in our brain cells Epigenetics is an important part of what makes us human Epigenetic effects can be passed on to offspring Environment affects epigenetic processes turning off or ramping up genes with methyl and acetyl groups These changes are mostly BUT NOT COMPLETELY wiped clean in the fertilized egg The epigenetic process then begins anew differentiating the cells as the embryo forms Carey points to the Dutch Hunger Winter of 194445 to show how body size and weight of offspring were affected based on whether malnutrition occurred in the first or third trimester of pregnancy The upshot is that some effects still showed up in the grandchildren Cancer can be caused by mutations or by tumor suppressor genes that are epigenetically damped down In fact suppressor genes seem to be targeted than tumor growth genes Suppressor genes can become so compacted from methylation that the cell enters a stem cell state dividing nonstop Molecules such as microRNAs that inhibit epigenetic enzymes can get caught in positive feedback loops reducing their own numbers and throwing gene regulation out of control Epigenetic solutions to preventing cancer include inhibiting DNMT which adds methyl groups and HDAC which removes acetyl groups to prevent methylation and promote acetylation thus turning on or dialing up the activity of tumor suppressor genes Drugs are approved that do this and work well for some blood cancers but not solid tumors The ability to deliver these drugs in the amount needed at the place needed is a limiting factor These drugs affect many genes at once often with severe side effects So targeting specific epigenetic enzymes will be necessary Carey goes on to discuss epigenetics as a factor in mental illnesses and aging She cautiously offers hope for the future but there a lot of layers to work through While the complexity of epigenetics makes these problems extremely difficult to solve our understanding of epigenetics makes solutions possible We will see much medical research based on epigenetics It s the old saw the we know the we realize we don t Carey s book opened up a whole new world to me For those with an interest in how our genome works this is a very worthwhile read It can get uite detailed but it doesn t overwhelm I look forward to reading about many exciting discoveries in this groundbreaking field and now I can appreciate at least some of what it means The Archetype of Initiation your liver How is it that identical twins share exactly the same DNA and Duplicity yet can exhibit dramatic differences in the way that they live and grow It turns out that cells read the genetic code in DNA like a script to be interpreted than a mould that replicates the same result each time This is epigenetics and it's the fastest moving field in biology today The Epigenetics Revolution traces the thrilling path this discipline h. Carey explains how epigenetics makes two people different who have exactly the same genes Take her example of the identical twin with schizophrenia One might think if one identical twin has schizophrenia the other one will Not necessarily only a 50% chance But if not due to genes why is the chance so high given only 1% or fewer occurrences in the population as a whole The difference is due to epigeneticsEpigenetics operates through mechanisms that alter the expression of a gene without changing its structure Methylation can shut down a gene entirely Acetylation of the histone that packages DNA can ramp up gene expression As Carey drills down the processes become increasingly complex and unclear since much is still not understood There are hundreds of proteins that write read or erase epigenetic codes each with their own specialization For example genes may code for proteins that promote or inhibit say depression or anxiety Then there are enzymes and RNAs that directly up or down regulate those genes Then these enzymes and RNAs are in turn up or down regulated by other enzymes and RNAs All of these molecules are manufactured in processes subject to similar scenarios The process is so intertwined that it boggles the mind The discussion made me wonder how anything so intricate could ever work but indeed it does most of the timeMuch of this activity is controlled by our so called junk DNA which does not code for proteins For example the retrotransposons are DNA segments that code for RNA that can methylate genes Methylation is critical to our development By turning off some genes it ensures each cell performs only its specialized function We don t want our heart cells making liver enzymes or brain cells beating like our heart Other parts of our junk DNA code for microRNA that regulate messenger RNA Messenger RNA carries the DNA instructions to the ribosome where proteins are assembled Humans have extensive microRNA editing capabilities that even our closest relatives the chimpanzees lack This ability to fine tune microRNA is particularly evidenced in our brain cells Epigenetics is an important part of what makes us human Epigenetic effects can be passed on to offspring Environment affects epigenetic processes turning off or ramping up genes with methyl and acetyl groups These changes are mostly BUT NOT COMPLETELY wiped clean in the fertilized egg The epigenetic process then begins anew differentiating the cells as the embryo forms Carey points to the Dutch Hunger Winter of 194445 to show how body size and weight of offspring were affected based on whether malnutrition occurred in the first or third trimester of pregnancy The upshot is that some effects still showed up in the grandchildren Cancer can be caused by mutations or by tumor suppressor genes that are epigenetically damped down In fact suppressor genes seem to be targeted than tumor growth genes Suppressor genes can become so compacted from methylation that the cell enters a stem cell state dividing nonstop Molecules such as microRNAs that inhibit epigenetic enzymes can get caught in positive feedback loops reducing their own numbers and throwing gene regulation out of control Epigenetic solutions to preventing cancer include inhibiting DNMT which adds methyl groups and HDAC which removes acetyl groups to prevent methylation and promote acetylation thus turning on or dialing up the activity of tumor suppressor genes Drugs are approved that do this and work well for some blood cancers but not solid tumors The ability to deliver these drugs in the amount needed at the place needed is a limiting factor These drugs affect many genes at once often with severe side effects So targeting specific epigenetic enzymes will be necessary Carey goes on to discuss epigenetics as a factor in mental illnesses and aging She cautiously offers hope for the future but there a lot of layers to work through While the complexity of epigenetics makes these problems extremely difficult to solve our understanding of epigenetics makes solutions possible We will see much medical research based on epigenetics It s the old saw the we know the we realize we don t Carey s book opened up a whole new world to me For those with an interest in how our genome works this is a very worthwhile read It can get uite detailed but it doesn t overwhelm I look forward to reading about many exciting discoveries in this groundbreaking field and now I can appreciate at least some of what it means

Nessa Carey ´ 5 Download

Download  The Epigenetics Revolution å PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB free As taken over the last twenty years Biologist Nessa Carey deftly explains such diverse phenomena as how ueen bees and ants control their colonies why tortoiseshell cats are always female why some plants need a period of cold before they can flower why we age develop disease and become addicted to drugs and much Most excitingly Carey reveals the amazing possibilities for humankind that epigenetics offers for us all and in the surprisingly near futur. Given that very cell in our body contains exactly the same DNA how is it possible that so many of our tissues are highly specialised to perform totally different functions The answer is epigenetics which is the study of how the same DNA can be expressed in different ways Sections of DNA can be switched on or off They can have their volume turned up or downTo clarify this phenomenon the author draws an analogy from theatre The Royal Shakespeare Company would produce a classical performances of Romeo and Juliette whilst Baz Luhrmann s movie of the same title is strikingly different but both use exactly the same script What is different is how the script is performed If our DNA is the script for our play epigenetic modifications act as a multitude of varied performances enabling our cells which again all have identical DNA to specialise in completely different ways This is why we don t have teeth in our eyes for exampleAccording to the author the field of epigenetics is transforming our understanding of many of the most important uestions in biology It is putting meat on the bones of the naturenuture debate Epigenetic phenomena have been shown to account for a number of diseases including various cancers They give an insight into what ageing is and why it happens Nessa Carey provides a number of other examples to contextualise the research being undertaken in this areaThis is a very interesting book In most places it is well written and engaging The reason I give it three stars and not is the author s explanation and use of terminologyThe book is heavy on jargon from molecular biology The problem is that unless you study this very carefully it is easy to end up proceeding through the denser parts of the explanations with only a hazy understanding of what is going on especially in some of the many sections that pile the terminology on thick and fast The book demonstrates an awareness that this will be a difficulty for readers in a couple ways First the author reminds the reader of what a term means every now and then The issue is that this reminder usually comes several chapters after the original explanation By this point in the book if you don t remember exactly what a promoter region or a retrotransposon is you ve likely been struggling for the last couple hours In brief then the reminders of what they key terms mean are not given in timely places throughout the bookSecond there s the glossary at the end This could really use detail Similar criticism if you go to the glossary to look for an explanation you won t necessarily find the matter clarified thereUnless you study this book like a text at university constantly going back and forward or already have a background in genetics your understanding of the explanations will likely be impeded by these thingsOne thing I d like to see in some of the denser popular science books now that so many of us read on a Kindle or similar device is a set of links built into the text so that it is easy to look up full explanations of each concept whenever reuiredI wouldn t call myself a lazy reader by any means and I certainly don t expect to have all the work done for me when tackling a book like this but eually I don t feel this book has been put together in a way that optimally promotes understanding by the non specialist reader As a teacher myself I understand that this is not always easy but surely this is a key part of the job of an author trying to communicate a complex topic to the general public


10 thoughts on “(EPUB) [The Epigenetics Revolution]

  1. says: (EPUB) [The Epigenetics Revolution]

    (EPUB) [The Epigenetics Revolution] It seems to be time to rehabilitate Lamarck and Junk DNAAs if the vagueness in the debate of the priority of genes or education was no

  2. says: Nessa Carey ´ 5 Download Read ð PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB free ´ Nessa Carey (EPUB) [The Epigenetics Revolution]

    Read ð PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB free ´ Nessa Carey Nessa Carey ´ 5 Download (EPUB) [The Epigenetics Revolution] Since the Watson Crick model of our double helical structure DNA in 1953 and the foundations of the central dogma of molecular biology DNA RNA protein were established major advances in genetics have taken place In the year

  3. says: (EPUB) [The Epigenetics Revolution]

    Read ð PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB free ´ Nessa Carey Nessa Carey ´ 5 Download (EPUB) [The Epigenetics Revolution] Nessa Carey is an active researcher and an excellent writer She explains cogently why there certainly is a revolution occurring now in genetics and gives us a very good introductory guide to the subject of epigenetics There is much to genetic inheritance than simply the DNA that is found in our cells Carey shows many examples of epigenetics at work One very basic example is the fact that despite every cell nucleus having identica

  4. says: (EPUB) [The Epigenetics Revolution]

    Read ð PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB free ´ Nessa Carey Nessa Carey ´ 5 Download Free read The Epigenetics Revolution There have been lots of popular science books about genetics and evolution and that's fine but there really hasn't been anywhere near enough coverage of epigenetics which is why Nessa Carey's book is so welcome Over the last 30 years or so it has become increasingly obvious that the idea of genes coding for proteins the basic concept of genetics is only a starting point for the way DNA acts to provide control software for the body's devel

  5. says: (EPUB) [The Epigenetics Revolution]

    (EPUB) [The Epigenetics Revolution] Carey explains how epigenetics makes two people different who have exactly the same genes Take her example of the identical twin with schizophrenia One might think if one identical twin has schizophrenia the other one will Not necessarily only a 50% chance But if not due to genes why is the chance so high given only 1% or

  6. says: (EPUB) [The Epigenetics Revolution] Read ð PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB free ´ Nessa Carey Nessa Carey ´ 5 Download

    (EPUB) [The Epigenetics Revolution] I was initially drawn to this fascinating book because I have an identical twin and always come to wonder in what

  7. says: Free read The Epigenetics Revolution (EPUB) [The Epigenetics Revolution]

    (EPUB) [The Epigenetics Revolution] DNA mRNA proteins you understand life Well it was never that simple but now it's not even an accurate description of all

  8. says: Free read The Epigenetics Revolution Nessa Carey ´ 5 Download Read ð PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB free ´ Nessa Carey

    (EPUB) [The Epigenetics Revolution] Given that very cell in our body contains exactly the same DNA how is it possible that so many of our tissues are highly specialised to perform totally different functions? The answer is epigenetics which is the study of

  9. says: Free read The Epigenetics Revolution (EPUB) [The Epigenetics Revolution] Nessa Carey ´ 5 Download

    (EPUB) [The Epigenetics Revolution] Read ð PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB free ´ Nessa Carey WowReading this book was a mind blowing journeyWhat I love most about it is that although it delves deep into specifics all it reuires is a basic understanding of cell biology The author builds her way up from the basics to the tiniest details Even better every time something from a previous chapter is mentioned she explains it in brief again so that the reader doesn't have to go back to that chapter in order to remem

  10. says: Free read The Epigenetics Revolution Nessa Carey ´ 5 Download Read ð PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB free ´ Nessa Carey

    (EPUB) [The Epigenetics Revolution] Most of this was too detailed for me but I enjoyed it anyway It started out by blowing away my definition of epigenetics which I had wrongly ascribed only to agents outside the organism It includes those plus those within the organism anything that changes the expression of DNA That's a really big deal obvious in retrospect How does a skin cell differentiate from a liver cell without it? DuhThroughout the book

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  • Kindle Edition
  • 320
  • The Epigenetics Revolution
  • Nessa Carey
  • English
  • 09 April 2019
  • null